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Low rate of conversion to transfemoral approach when attempting both radial arteries for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention: a study of 1,826 consecutive procedures.

Guedes A, Dangoisse V, Gabriel L, Jamart J, Chenu P, Marchandise B, Schroeder E.

AIMS: Despite a proven safety profile, the transradial approach (TRA) for coronary procedures is regarded by many as complicated and the second-choice arterial access, with a high conversion rate to transfemoral access (TFA). This study reports causes of failure and the contemporary success rate of TRA when both radial arteries are attempted first before converting to TFA.

METHODS: This prospective, single-center study included 1,826 consecutive patients referred for cardiac catheterization, which was performed by two trained operators between January 2005 and June 2007. Procedural data were reported in a specific database.

RESULTS: The procedural success rate through TRA (attempting one or both radial arteries) was 98.8%. One hundred and thirty-five radial attempts failed. Inability to puncture or to wire the artery accounted for 52.6% of failures, inability to reach coronary or graft ostia accounted for 20.7% and the remaining failures were related to the inability to reach a contralateral mammary graft. By multivariate analysis, the best predictors for failures were peripheral artery disease (PAD) (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.8; p = 0.016), bedside clinical assessment of either a "small radial artery" size (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.0; p = 0.003) or a "difficult access" (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9; p = 0.006). The number of failed attempts regresses annually by about 40% (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8; p < 0.001), thus demonstrating a continuous learning curve. Although rare, hematoma combined with swelling (3.8%) arises more frequently in females (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-3.9; p = 0.001) and elderly patients (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0- 3.7; p = 0.040).

CONCLUSION: The TRA can be safely proposed for all patients, with a low conversion rate to TFA when an attempt on both radial arteries is considered first.

J Invasive Cardiol. 2010 Sep; 22(9):391-7.