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Incidence, range, and clinical effect of hemoglobin changes within 24 hours after transradial coronary stenting.

Bertrand OF, Larose E, Rodés-Cabau J, Rinfret S, Déry JP, Bagur R, Gleeton O, Nguyen CM, Proulx G, De Larochellière R, Poirier P, Costerousse O, Roy L. Canada.

Anemia and major bleeding are independent predictors of outcomes after acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although the transradial approach reduces the incidence of bleeding, the hemoglobin changes after transradial PCI have not been defined. We serially assessed the hemoglobin values before and after transradial PCI and evaluated the effect of hemoglobin changes on outcomes. In the EArly Discharge After Transradial Stenting of CoronarY Arteries (EASY) trial, 1,348 patients underwent transradial PCI. All patients received aspirin, clopidogrel, and a bolus of abciximab before PCI. The hemoglobin values were assessed immediately before and 4 to 6 hours and 12 to 24 hours after PCI. The major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) were assessed < or =3 years after PCI. According to the World Health Organization classification, 206 patients (15%) had anemia before PCI and 410 (30%) developed anemia within 24 hours after PCI. A mean hemoglobin decrease of 0.6 +/- 1.0 g/dl occurred within 24 hours after PCI. At 30 days, the major adverse cardiac events were significantly increased when the hemoglobin decrease within 24 hours after PCI was >3 g/dl (p = 0.0002). Patients with anemia within 24 hours after PCI had significantly more major adverse cardiac events at 30 days, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years than patients without anemia (log-rank p = 0.0044). After adjustment for differences in the baseline characteristics, anemia within 24 hours after PCI remained an independent predictor of major averse cardiac events at 3 years (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.67, p = 0.045). In conclusion, within 24 hours after transradial PCI with maximal antiplatelet therapy, only a mild hemoglobin decrease was observed. The choice of a hemoglobin decrease >3 g/dl after PCI as a cutoff value for current definitions of major bleeding in modern PCI trials appears reasonable. Measures to prevent anemia and blood loss during PCI remain to be further studied.

Am J Cardiol. 2010 Jul 15;106(2):155-61.